V 372 Orionis

V 372 Orionis, just below the center of this frame, is an odd type of variable star known as an Orion Variable. These young stars experience irregular variations in luminosity. Orion Variables are often associated with diffuse nebulae, and V 372 Orionis is no exception; the patchy gas and dust of the Orion Nebula pervade this image.

Image Credit: ESA / NASA

Titan and Rhea

Titan and RheaSaturn’s two largest moons, Titan and Rhea, seem to be stacked together in this true-color picture taken by the Cassini spacecraft. This view looks toward the Saturn-facing side of Rhea. North on Rhea is up and rotated 35 degrees to the right.

Separate images taken with red, green and blue filters using Cassini‘s narrow-angle camera were combined to create this natural-color view. The spacecraft was approximately 1.8 million km away from Rhea and 2.5 million km from Titan.

Image Credit: NASA

Messier 2

Messier_2Messier 2 (aka M2) is about 37,500 light-years from Earth. It is roughly 175 light-years in diameter, one of the larger globular clusters known. It is 13 billion years old and one of the older globulars associated with the Milky Way Galaxy. M2 contains about 150,000 stars, including 21 known variable stars. Its brightest stars are red and yellow giant stars. Click the image to embiggen it. It’s 4k X 4k pixels, so, depending on your browser, a second click may be necessary to get it to full size.

Image Credit: NASA

Dense Dwarfs

Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are a class of very compact galaxies with very high stellar densities. An extreme example of a UCD is M60-UCD1 which contains approximately 200 million solar masses within a 160 light-year radius. The stars in its cental region are about 25 times closer together than the stars in our part of the Milky Way. M59-UCD3 is approximately the same size as M60-UCD1 with a half-light radius, but it’s 40% more luminous. This makes M59-UCD3 the densest known galaxy.

Image Credit: NASA

A View From Mars

earth-from-mars-hiresA telescope in orbit around Mars took this view of Earth and its Moon, showing continent-size detail on the planet. The image combines two separate exposures taken in November, 2016, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken to calibrate HiRISE  using the known value of reflectance for the Earth-facing side of the Moon. The exposures used to make this composite image were processed separately to optimize detail visible on both Earth and the Moon. The Moon is much darker than Earth and would barely be visible if shown at the same brightness scale as Earth.

The combined view retains the correct positions and sizes of the two bodies relative to each other. The distance between Earth and the Moon is about 30 times the diameter of Earth. Earth and the moon appear closer than they actually are in this image because the observation was planned for a time at which the Moon was almost directly behind Earth as seen from Mars so that the Earth-facing side of the Moon would be visible.

The reddish feature near the middle of the face of Earth is Australia. Mars was about 205 million km from Earth when the images were taken, so nude sunbathers are not visible in this image.

Image Credit: NASA

X-Ray Vision

chandra-deep-field-southThis image was made with over 7 million seconds (about 11-1/2 weeks) of Chandra X-Ray Observatory observing time. It’s part of the Chandra Deep Field-South and is the deepest X-ray image ever obtained. This look at the early Universe in X-rays gives astronomers the best look yet at the growth of black holes over billions of years starting soon after the Big Bang. In this image, low, medium, and high-energy X-rays that Chandra detects are shown as red, green, and blue respectively.

Image Credit: NASA

A Fading Singray

This video shows how the planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 (aka the Stingray Nebula) has faded since the mid 1990s. The nebula is first seen as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1996, with filaments and tendrils of gas glowing bright blue at its center. Then it transitions to Hubble’s 2016 image, which shows a much dimmer nebula lacking in the pronounced wavy edges.

Video Credit: NASA / ESA/ STScI

Rings That Aren’t Saturn’s

RingsThese belong to Jupiter, not Saturn. The ring system of Jupiter was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft in 1996. This image of the west ansa (the edge of a ring system) of Jupiter’s main ring has a resolution of 24 km per pixel. Plotting the brightness of ring from the inner-most edge of the image to the outer-most through the thickest part of the ring, shows the “dips” in brightness caused by perturbations from satellites. Two small satellites, Adrastea and Metis, which are not seen in this image, orbit through the outer portion of the ansa much like the small moons that shepherd Saturn’s rings.

BTW, all four of the gas giant planets in the Solar System have rings.

Image Credit: NASA

A Dwarf with a Supermassive Black Hole

A dwarf starburst galaxy about 30 million light years from Earth.Henize 2-10 is a dwarf galaxy, and it is the first dwarf galaxy ever discovered to contain a supermassive black hole at its center. This was surprising because the black hole is about one quarter of the size of the one at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. However, Henize 2-10 is only about1/1,000th the size of the Milky Way..

This image combines x-ray (Chandra), visible light (Hubble), and radio telescope (Very Large Array) views.

Image Credit: NASA / NRAO

NGC 7469

This JWST image is of NGC 7469, a luminous, face-on spiral galaxy approximately 90,000 light-years in diameter that’s around 220 million light-years away. It contgains an active galactic nucleus (AGN), an extremely bright central region dominated by the light emitted by dust and gas falling into the galaxy’s central black hole. The six-pointed spikes that seem to align with center of the galaxy are an imaging artifact known as a diffraction spike. Diffraction spikes are caused by light bending around the sharp edges int optical path of a telescope.

Video: ESA / NASA / CSA
Music: Stellardrone – Twilight
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IC 443

ic443The Jellyfish Nebula (aka IC 443,) is the remnant of a supernova about 5,000 light years from Earth. Chandra X-ray Telescope observations show that the explosion that created the Jellyfish Nebula may have also formed a rapidly spinning neutron star, or pulsar.

When a massive star runs out of thermonuclear fuel, it implodes and forms a dense stellar core called a neutron star. The outer layers of the star collapse into the neutron star then bounce outward in a supernova explosion. A spinning neutron star that produces a beam of radiation is called a pulsar. As the radiation sweeps around like light from a lighthouse, it can be detected as pulses of radio waves and other types of radiation.

Click the image to embiggen it.

Image Credit: NASA